A rare Egyptian Bronze Overseer Shabti for the Pharaoh Psusennes I, Third Intermediate Period, ca. 1040 - 992 BCE
A rare Egyptian Bronze Overseer Shabti for the Pharaoh Psusennes I, Third Intermediate Period, ca. 1040 - 992 BCE
A rare Egyptian Bronze Overseer Shabti for the Pharaoh Psusennes I, Third Intermediate Period, ca. 1040 - 992 BCE
A rare Egyptian Bronze Overseer Shabti for the Pharaoh Psusennes I, Third Intermediate Period, ca. 1040 - 992 BCE
A rare Egyptian Bronze Overseer Shabti for the Pharaoh Psusennes I, Third Intermediate Period, ca. 1040 - 992 BCE
A rare Egyptian Bronze Overseer Shabti for the Pharaoh Psusennes I, Third Intermediate Period, ca. 1040 - 992 BCE

A rare Egyptian Bronze Overseer Shabti for the Pharaoh Psusennes I, Third Intermediate Period, ca. 1040 - 992 BCE

EU2309

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Depicted mummiform with the arms folded over the chest, holding agricultural implements in each hand, a seed bag over the shoulders, wearing a tripartite wig and long false beard, the apron incised with a cartouche with the pharaoh's nomen. 

Psusennes I was the third pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty who ruled from Tanis between 1047 and 1001 BC.  He was the son of Pinedjem I and Henuttawy, Ramesses XI's daughter by Tentamun. He married his sister Mutnedjmet.

Psusennes's tomb, discovered in 1940, is notable for the condition in which it was found. Almost all pharaonic tombs were entirely graverobbed but Psuennes's tomb was one of only two royal tombs discovered in fully intact condition. However, the humid climate of Lower Egypt meant only the metal objects had survived.  The king's magnificent funerary mask, made of gold and lapis lazuli and held inlays of black and white glass is considered one of the masterpieces of the treasures of Tanis.  

During his long reign, Psusennes built the enclosure walls and the central part of the Great Temple at Tanis which was dedicated to the triad of Amun, Mut and Khonsu. He was ostensibly the ruler responsible for turning Tanis into a fully-fledged capital city, surrounding its temple with a formidable brick temenos wall with its sanctuary dedicated to Amun being composed of blocks salvaged from the derelict Pi-Ramesses. Many of these blocks were unaltered and kept the name of Pi-Ramesses' builder, Ramesses II, including obelisks still bearing the name of Ramesses II transported from the former capital of Pi-Ramesses to Tanis.

For related examples see: 

Pierre Montet, Les constructions et le tombeau de Psousennes a Tanis (Fouilles de Tanis; La necropole royale de Tanis, tome 2) (Paris, 1951 ); for the bronze shabtis see p. 94, nr. 333, and pl. LXIII.

Peter A. Clayton, "Two Ancient Egyptian Bronze Royal Shawabti Figures", The Antiquaries Journal, 50 (London, 1970), p. 347-348.

Peter A. Clayton, "Royal Bronze Shawabti Figures", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 58 (London, 1972), p. 167-175.

Jacques F. Aubert - Liliane Aubert, Statuettes egyptiennes, Chaouabtis, ouchebtis (Paris, 1974) 150-156; for an attempted reconstruction of the number of shabtis found see p. 152-154; for the forgeries see p. 155-156.

Hans D. Schneider, Shabtis: An Introduction to the History of Ancient Egyptian Funerary Statuettes with a Catalogue of the Collection of Shabtis in the National Museum of Antiquities at Leiden (Collections of the National Museum of Antiquities at Leiden, 2) (Leiden, 1977), I, 238, 256 note 59; 11, 151-152, nos. 4.7.0.1 - 4.7.0.18.

Hermann SchlogI -Andreas Brodbeck, Agyptische Totenfiguren aus offentlichen und privaten Sammlungen der Schweiz (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Series Archeologica, 7) (Gottingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; Freiburg Schweiz, Universitatsverlag, 1990), p. 208-209, no. 130-130a-130b.

Jacques F. Aubert - Liliane Aubert, Bronzes et or egyptien (Paris, 2001), p. 115; p. 428, pl. 12.

Valerie Hayez, Use of Micro-Raman Spectroscopy for the Study of the Atmospheric Corrosion of Copper Alloys of Cultural Heritage (Brussels, 2006), p. 246-248. 

Medium:  Bronze

Dimensions:  Height: 3 inches (7.5 cm)

Condition:  Break to the lower legs that has been rejoined, and professionally cleaned.

Provenance:  Private New York collection, acquired from the NY trade in the 1970s, thereafter private Virginia collection, acquired in 2013.

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